Australia`s NDC Intended, published by the federal government in August 2015 before the Paris Agreement was adopted, has required Australia to achieve a „macroeconomic target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 26-28% from 2005 to 2030 levels.” However, Australia has qualified its objectives by reserving the right to adapt its objective, „if the rules and other terms of support of the agreement are different in a way that greatly influences the definition of our objective.” Australia did not commit to carbon neutrality in the second half of this century. Australia`s greenhouse gas production remains flat and remains below the downward trend needed to meet the terms of the Paris climate agreement and keep global warming below two degrees. Under the kyoto Protocol, which is soon to be obsolete, deferral credits have been granted to encourage countries to be as ambitious as possible in reducing pollution. They were not mentioned in the original Paris agreement, but they were added to the text to be negotiated in Madrid, with some countries proposing a ban. S. Yeo, „Timeline: the Paris agreement`s `ratchet mechanism`, Carbon Letter, January 2016. Comparisons are complicated by the use of different base years, but Australia`s 2030 emissions reduction target has been described as less ambitious than that of most developed countries. The climate change agency has recommended a 30% reduction in emissions from 2000 by 2025. The Paris agreement was concluded in 2015 by 175 parties.
The aim of the agreement is to limit global warming to „well below” 2 degrees Celsius and to limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius. „Australia is largely on fire for climate change and I don`t understand why the Australian government is looking for ways to weaken the Paris agreement so that it and others can do less to resolve the climate crisis,” Tong said. Climate Analytics found that there was nothing within the legal framework of the Kyoto Protocol that would allow the transfer of emissions reductions to a new agreement after its end in 2020. According to the report, Australia does not appear to have met its commitment to reduce its target from 5% below 2000 levels to 15% by 2020 if the world achieves a comprehensive treaty capable of limiting its emissions to less than 450 parts per million carbon dioxide atmospheres. The Paris agreement could limit emissions to this level. Taylor said the Paris agreement „sends a strong signal to the world that countries are serious about fighting climate change.” The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement on climate change developed under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The protocol encourages 192 parties to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, with many industrialized countries having binding emission reduction targets. In December 2015, the parties to the Un Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted the Paris Agreement: a pioneering agreement to combat climate change and measures to move their economies towards a sustainable, low-carbon future. The professors, all from Australian universities, argued that the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement were „completely separate treaties.” As such, they stated that the Kyoto appropriations could only be used to achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement, if this had been decided and agreed by all the contracting parties to the agreement.
The climate conference and debate on the text, including the ban on transfer credits, are due to end on Friday. On Wednesday night in Australia, it was not clear whether an agreement would be reached. It found that the two agreements were separate and should not be considered a continuation of an agreement. The United States formally withdrew from the Paris climate agreement last week, but Biden promised to re-enter the Paris Pact and commit to a net zero emission level by 2050.