No contract term was mentioned, so there will likely be a continuation of the rolling contract. The government is working to reach agreements with 20 pilot municipalities for 2001-02 before a broader introduction is planned for 2002-03. The characteristics that can make a rollup particularly attractive are particularly important when there are many small players in a fragmented market or in areas where technology can play a role in reviving low-margin industries. The other reason why companies make rollups is achievable repeatedly on higher profits in large-scale enterprises, compared to small mother and pop operations that remain vulnerable to changing markets and poor access to capital markets. [Citation required] Rollups are almost as old as modern commerce itself, with some early capitalists attacking their competitors in pay, but peaked during the era of robbers in the 19th century, when people like Andrew Carnegie consolidated heavy industry and John D. Rockefeller joined the oil industry. James Buchanan Duke bought so many manufacturers that he once controlled 80% of the U.S. tobacco industry and a significant portion of international trade. These monopolistic attempts worried the authorities and resulted in a series of antitrust laws and measures in the early 20th century. For example, look at a reseller that has a call option that expires in June with a strike price of $10 for Widget Company. The stock is trading at 12 $US. As the call option is about to expire, if the distributor stays on Widget Company bullish, it can choose to maintain its investment and protect profits by selling the June Call option or at the same time buying a call option that expires in September with a strike price of 12 USD. This „roll up” at a higher strike price reduces the premium for the second option (compared to the purchase of a new strike call worth $10), which protects some of the profits from the first trade. A Roll Forward can be run with the same strike price for the new contract as the old one, or a new strike can be fixed. If the new contract has a higher strike price than the original contract, the strategy is called „roll up,” but if the new contract has a lower strike price, it is called roll down. These strategies can be used to protect profits or protect against losses. Chip – PIN, where many distributors have problems. Kraft Foods (now Mondelz International) was founded in 1923 and has been an important rollup in the food industry.  The main objective of a rollup is to reduce costs by making economies of scale. It also increases the valuation multipliers that the company can order if it gets larger scales. Rollups can also streamline competition in overcrowded and fragmented markets, where there are often many small participants, but little room for success.  Roll Forward refers to the extension of the expiry or duration of an option, futures contract or futures contract by concluding the original contract and opening a new long-term contract for the same underlying market price.